Energy is having the capacity to preform work. The unit of measurement used to measure energy is called a Joule (J). When something is at rest that energy us stored in a form of energy called potential. When something or someone is moving that energy shifts to something called kinetic energy. These worksheets will examine all these different forms of energy and how humans harvest this energy and use it to their benefit. The worksheets that you find below will help students learn how this type of energy is generated and used by humans to make their lives easier.
In physics, which is the branch of science that studies the nature and properties of matter and energy, it is measured in joules (J).
If the car that began to move after the collision then crashes into another car, that car, too, may begin to move, and so on, until all the kinetic energy is dissipated.
Potential energy is the ability to do work that exists in an object when it is not moving.
Give an example of a moving object that has an aspect of potential.
In the sixteenth century, a scientist named Galileo conducted an experiment with gravity. He dropped two objects from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa.
Gravitational potential energy (GPE) comes from Earth's gravity. GPE is the potential that is stored in an object based on its mass and how far away it is from an object exerting a gravitational force.
One of the best examples of elastic PE is the trampoline, which consists of a flexible material that is fastened to a stationary frame by a series of springs.
When a person jumps in the air, what kind of energy do they have at the height of their jump?
There are many examples of chemical energy in our everyday lives. Even the food we eat is an example of this and many other things we use on a daily basis.
In an exothermic reaction, chemical energy is released or converted in the form of heat.
It is the force that holds particles like protons and neutrons together to form the nucleus of an atom.
Explain what is released as heat and radiation during nuclear fission and fusion reactions.
"Work" occurs when a force acts on an object, causing that object to move, change shape, or in some way be displaced.
An example of mechanical energy can be seen when you use that same hammer to drive a nail into a block of wood.
We also use the word electromagnetism to describe how a magnetic field is made by the flow of electric current.
How can we cause the force that exists in electrons to generate electrical energy (electricity) that we can use?
Thermal energy is a type of kinetic force because it comes from the vibration of molecules.
There are three ways that thermal energy can be transferred from one molecule to another: convection, conduction, and radiation.
Radiant energy is made up of very small particles called photons which travel in electromagnetic waves.
What Are Kinetic and Potential Energies?
Kinetic and potential energies are the two primary forms of energy. We cannot create or destroy either of them, which makes their existence eternal. Both types can coexist in a single object, so does that mean they are the same?
Kinetic and potential energies are different but related to each other. Kinetic energy is present in moving objects, and non-moving things have potential energy. Despite this difference, they can transform from one state to another. Kinetic and potential energies can also form mechanical energy.
So, if you have a bottle of ketchup on the table it has a whole bunch of stored energy. If that bottle were to begin to fall off the table, it would shift to kinetic energy.
Potential energy can be established by gravity. The rate at which gravity pulls something to the Earth create that energy. Objects that are elastic store the ability to do work as well. Springs, bows, rubber bands, and slingshots are examples of this. PE can also be present in electric, nuclear and chemical forms as well.
What Is Potential Energy?
Potential energy (PE) is the capacity or potential of an object to do work. An object acquires this type of force when it is in a position to either move or do some work. As soon as the movement starts, the PE changes form.
PE depends on an object’s position relative to other things and the forces they exert on each other. You can calculate it by measuring an object’s “potential to do work.”
For example, the string of a bowstring has PE when you pull the string back and hold it in place. This pulled-back position suggests the string has the potential to move after the release.
To release that energy, you must let go of the string. Remember, the energy here will not disappear; it will only change into a new form.
There are different types of potential energies:
- Elastic potential – depends on the elasticity of the object.
- Chemical potential – depends on the chemical bonds between atoms within an object.
- Gravitational potential – depends on the object’s distance from the earth.
- Nuclear potential – depends on the energy present in an atom’s nucleus.
- Electric potential – depends on the energy you need to move a charge from one point to another against an electric field.
What Is Kinetic Energy?
Kinetic energy (KE) is present in an object when it is moving. This type of energy depends on the object’s mass and velocity. It is transferable between two objects and can transform into other forms of energy.
Examples of KE include a rolling ball, a flying bird, or a moving car.
There are different types of kinetic energies:
Relationship between Kinetic and Potential Energies
When you release PE, it transforms into KE.
For instance, a football has PE when it’s on the ground and not moving. When you kick the ball, the PE is released and becomes KE.
The ball continues to release KE as it flies through the air, hits the gound, and starts to roll. The KE transforms back into potential when the ball stops moving and finally comes to rest again.
Can Kinetic and Potential Be Present at the Same Time?
Kinetic and potential energies can be present in an object at the same time. It happens when the object has energy due to its movement and position. This coexistence of kinetic and potential energies results in mechanical energy.
For example, a flying object is in motion and at a certain distance from the ground. It has both kinetic and PE.
KE vs. PE
Let’s compare the two forms of energy:
It is position relative.
It is motion relative.
It is not transferable.
It is movable between two objects.
It is present in an object just before it sets into action.
PE transforms into KE as soon as the object sets into motion.
It depends on the mass, height, and distance of the object.
It depends on the mass and velocity of the object.
An example of PE is the water in a tank.
An example of KE is the water that flows out of the tank.
As the two primary forms of energy, kinetic and potential energies can never disappear. We can see them in every action we perform and in our surroundings. Even though they are different, they work together to create renewable resources and alternate forms of energy.