These worksheets will explore all the different ways that use energy to power things or how we store it in the form of batteries. We examine the anatomy of batteries and light bulbs. We explore how simple circuits operate and how switches can help you harness their design. We eventually expand on to calculating the awesome power of these things. We help students learn how to calculate the current, voltage, and resistance a system exerts. We finish off by exploring more complex uses of this energy in the form of electric motors, transformers, and generators. These are the types of worksheets that you would most likely find in Physical Science classes. We focus on the movement of electric current and the use of batteries and cells.
Dry cell batteries are the source of electrical power used in many small devices like flashlights, toys, and radios.
Circuits can become quite complicated and a variety of symbols are used to indicate parts of the circuit.
There are two basic kinds of electrical circuits, parallel and series. A circuit can be considered open or closed depending on whether current can pass through the circuit.
For each lever indicate whether it is a first, second or third class lever and label the following parts: force, fulcrum, and load.
The equation for Ohm's law can be rearranged as shown in the box to calculate voltage.
The equation for Ohm's law can be rearranged as shown in the box to calculate resistance.
Power describes how voltage and current combine to produce an amount of work done per unit of time and is calculated via the formula in the box.
The abbreviation for kilowatt hour is kWh and is what the power company charges customers for.
. In the space below, draw a diagram of a parallel circuit which has a battery, 1 switch, and 3 light bulbs.
Diagram an electric motor by using the list of parts beneath the diagram. In the list, describe the function or purpose of each part.
Provide labels on the diagrams of a direct current and an alternating current generator below using the list of parts beneath the diagrams.
How Does Electricity Work?
Almost every working machine around us runs on electricity. This includes cell phones, laptops, and even the routers that give us internet connectivity. But how does it work?
The flow of negatively charged particles makes electricity work. A switch controls this flow of electrons by creating an open or closed circuit. When the circuit is closed, the negative charges flow freely, allowing electricity to power your devices.
The awesome nature of electricity is overwhelming. A single blast of lighting could easily provide enough power to power one hundred light bulbs for over a day. It is a type of energy it usually resides in two forms. Static is formed when electricity gathers in one location. Moving electricity is referred to as current. The innovation of battery technologies has really taken the forefront of the new designs and use of electricity as we move for a greener tomorrow. This section touches on electromagnetism which is usually a larger part of a physics curriculum. As technology continues to explode and we continue to invent new methods for using electricity our need for power grows. If we compare the amount of electricity consumed in the United States in 1950 compared to today, the nation consumes sixteen times more today. This demand will only continue to grow as our population increases.
We’ll get into the bits and details of this phenomenon in the following sections.
What Is Needed To Produce Electricity?
Since electricity entails the flow of electrons, at least two more elements are needed to produce it.
The first one is the voltage, which is the force that drives electrons to move. Without voltage, it is technically impossible to produce any electric current. However, the converse can be true: it is possible to have no electric current even when voltage is present.
The second element necessary to produce electricity comes in the form of conductors and semiconductors, which serve as mediums through which the flow takes place. Copper and aluminum are among the most common conductors, while silicon chips are good examples of semiconducting materials.
Does Electric Current Only Flow Along Conductors?
Without deep diving into the vast world of nanomaterials, you must know at least three concepts to grasp how it all works:
Conductive mediums have minimal resistance against current flow and are a suitable means to transport charges.
While it is easiest for electric current to drive along conductors, semiconductors, or materials with relatively higher resistance to electron transport, can still serve as mediums for electron flow.
Your cellphone charger, for instance, consists of conductive copper coils that provide electrons a virtually uninterrupted flow during a closed circuit. Meanwhile, your phone consists of semiconductors such as silicon that let electricity flow, albeit minimally, to execute complex computing processes.
Take note, however, that we, too, are not-so-obvious conductors of electricity in addition to metal wires. This means that we will definitely get electrocuted when we touch metals directly while electrons flow along them.
For this reason, manufacturers wrap copper coils with an insulator, typically rubber. You can look at insulators as the opposite of conductors. These materials have extremely high resistance to electron flow, making it virtually impossible for the latter to move along. Hence, coating electrical wires with insulators keeps us safe!
What Is the Difference Between an Open and Closed Circuit?
A switch is a device that can open and close an electric circuit. When the circuit is closed, electrons are able to travel freely across conductive mediums without interruption. When you press the switch to turn on the lights, for instance, you actually make the switch create a closed circuit, effectively allowing electrons to flow into the bulb to produce light.
On the other hand, when we have an open circuit, the electrons cannot loop around the conductive medium, and no current is produced. There are infinite examples of open circuits in our daily lives. These include an unplugged charger, a desk lamp that has been turned off, and basically any electrical setup that has no means for electrons to loop around it.
Electricity works through the continuous movement of electrons in a closed circuit. While conductors such as copper serve as the primary mediums for charge transport, semiconductors also allow electricity to flow, although with noticeably higher resistance.
As we are also good conductors of electricity, manufacturers coat electrical wires with insulators to ensure that we don’t get electrocuted when touching these materials while electrons also travel along them.
In addition to insulators, switches also help us control electric current by creating a closed or open electric circuit. When the circuit is open, no flow of electricity happens, even along conductors.